Extrakt aus dem Prostatakrebs-Forum
Nahrungsergänzungen – Zucker
verwies am 9.4.2006 auf das Kapitel "Sugar" in dem Buch
"Cancer - Nutrition and Survival" von Steve Hickey/Hilary
Roberts und fuhr fort:
plane gerade für mich ein Experiment mit Vitamin C und
Alpha-Liponsäure, bei dem es auch sehr wichtig sein wird,
strengste Kohlenhydratkontrolle vorzunehmen, ich werde mir ständig
meinen Blutzuckerspiegel kontrollieren. Bei dem Transport in die
Zelle hinein sind Glukose und Vitamin C Konkurrenten, sie benutzen
dieselben Transportwege: Wenn man will, dass mehr VitC reinkommt,
muss man darauf achten, dass wenig Glukose angeliefert wird.
white and deadly” John Yudkin
well-designed scientific studies, a “sugar pill” is a
placebo or dummy, which is given to control subjects in a
double-blind trial. Early scientists presumably assumed that sugar
was safe and would have minimal effects on the body, making it ideal
for comparison with the actions of a drug or treatment.
sugar has profound effects: as far as the body is concerned, it
contains pure calories. Much of the energy intake of a modern diet is
in the form of sugars and starches, which supply nutrient-free
energy. High sugar consumption leads to weight gain, particularly
when combined with low exercise levels.
high in sugar and carbohydrates lead to poor health.725 A
recent self-reported comparison of health and nutrition in 37,053
British people indicates the relationship of sugar to health.726
People who consumed large amounts of sugar-based snacks were about
five times more likely to report poor health. Other dietary intakes
associated with sugar intake, such as wheat, dairy, refined foods,
tea and coffee, were also linked with reduced health. Additional
foods related to feelings of illness were red meat and salt. Foods
associated with good health had a relatively high ratio of effective
antioxidants to carbohydrate; these include fresh fruit, vegetables,
salad, seeds, nuts and oily fish.
is a major risk factor for cancer.725 Obese people are
more likely to develop tumours, whereas people who eat less are more
resistant. The problem of obesity is rising throughout the western
world. The average American is now overweight,727 and two
percent or more are severely obese.728 Lack of exercise
and poor diet are leading causes of premature death.729
14% of cancer deaths in men and 20% of those in women are related to
obesity.730 This includes deaths from cancer of the
breast, cervix, colon, oesophagus, gallbladder, kidney, liver, ovary,
pancreas, prostate, stomach (male), and uterus.
appeal of sugar is not limited to humans; it has a broad biological
basis. Sugars provide easily assimilated energy for many organisms.
As a result, the exchange of sugar is involved in many relationships
between organisms.731 For example, the sweet nectar of
flowering plants is used to attract insects for pollination. Some
plants, such as a species of eucalyptus, excrete large amounts of
sugars to attract ants, which provide protection against herbivores.
Ants themselves farm caterpillars that excrete sugar. Keeping the
caterpillars requires more energy than they excrete in the form of
sugars, which indicates the importance of the sugar supply. In some
cases, such as with the caterpillar Maculinea arion, the farmed
animal will even eat ants.732
relationship between cancer and its host also depends on the
provision of sugars and other essential nutrients, to fuel abnormal
growth. This chapter looks at the relationship between sugar and
cancer. We will consider prevention of cancer separately from
treatment. This is because a diet to help people avoid cancer may
differ from a diet that is optimal for a patient with advanced
disease. As we consider the role of glucose, it will become apparent
that it is intimately related to the actions of vitamin C in the
cell. This interaction provides a means for preventing tumour growth
and selectively killing cancer cells.
who wish to avoid cancer or to live longer, if they already have the
disease, are often advised to cut down on sugar.725,733,749
Glucose deprivation generates oxidative stress within tumours,
because of a possible defect in the metabolism of cancer cells.734
One anticancer diet is called Calorie Restriction with Optimal
Nutrition (CRON). This consists of eating 70–80% of the
calories required to maintain body weight, while getting an optimal
level of vitamins and other nutrients. The core restriction is the
total energy consumed.
has shown that a reduced calorie diet can extend average lifespan in
many species, while also reducing the chronic disease load.735
In mice, energy restriction reduces the number of spontaneous
tumours.736 Such deprivation inhibits the growth of
mammary cancer, suppresses the growth of implanted tumours and
increases survival rates.737,738 In Sweden, researchers
found that women who had been treated for anorexia nervosa before
they were 40 had a 53% lower incidence of breast cancer.739
Although this result is consistent with a large effect of calorie
restriction, it is worth noting that these women’s intake of
specific vitamins and nutrients was also reduced.
is the ultimate junk food; it is high in energy but contains no other
nutrient value. Sugars and refined flour products make up a large
portion of the western diet. Indeed, high carbohydrate diets seem to
dominate official recommendations for healthy eating.
approach to estimating the effect of these foods on the body is the
glycaemic index (GI). The glycaemic index is a measure of the
metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates.740,741 The GI
measures how a particular food increases blood sugar levels in the
body. The higher the GI value, the greater are the body’s
glucose and insulin responses to the food in question. Since the
body’s response varies with the amount of food, this measure
can be misleading. For this reason, a modification called the
glycaemic load (GL) has been developed,740 to take into
account the amount of food consumed.
many people, this is a rather unworkable form of dietary advice. To
illustrate the problem, we refer the reader to the publication of an
international table of the glycaemic index and load of foods. In
2002, the table contained 750 entries.742 Such a table is
huge: even a simple meal could require a substantial amount of
arithmetic, not to mention guesswork as to the effects of combining
different foods. In the longer term, following such a diet may be
impractical for the majority of people. However, the approach may be
productive in helping to construct general dietary advice guidelines,
or for studying the health impacts of manufactured food.
projects have investigated the association between glycaemic load and
cancer. Controlled studies have shown that a high glycaemic load
carries an increased risk of cancer in the higher gut,743,744
uterus,745 ovary,746 and colon.747
Studies of glycaemic index and glycaemic load provide valuable
research tools, as high levels of glucose in the blood promote
cancer.748,749,820 Indicators of diabetes, such as
increased blood glucose, are associated with higher risk of colon
cancer.750 Diabetes is associated with increased risk of
cancer of the bowel,751,752,753,754,755,756 uterus,757
and pancreas.754,758 Furthermore, diabetes may be an
independent predictor of mortality from cancer of the colon,
pancreas, liver, bladder and female breast.754
people can benefit from learning the concept of glycaemic load and
its relationship to different types of food. Prospective studies have
shown an increased risk of cancer with high glycaemic
load.759,760,761 Other studies suggest this risk is
specific to sedentary, overweight subjects.762,763,764,765
As is often the case with such studies, others found no increase in
risk, providing contradictory evidence.766,767,768,769
these conflicting findings, people wanting to maintain good health
would be wise to limit their intake of foods with a high glycaemic
index. To a first approximation, the result of reducing the glycaemic
load is similar to a low carbohydrate diet.
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